It has been said that he was not white nor black, but like every other politician was grey. However, historical documents and reviewing historical events are revealing something else. If we look at the every part of Iran contemporary history especially the events in 40s and 50s his role was significant. Mozaffar Baghaei Kermani was a person that different interpretations has been used for describing him. Lack of historical documents makes it really difficult for anyone who wants to know about him which leads to an unsolved mystery about Baghaei.
A man who was with Iran national movement in some parts of the history and against it in other parts. Some people assigned him with the Iran’s left party and some others with the Tudeh Party of Iran (an Iranian communist party). While he hated the Tudeh Party of Iran based on the archives of his newspaper called “Shahed”. On the other hand, other groups called him liberal; therefore, one can interpret that Baghaei was using different tools in order to achieve his goals. Journalists, military men, villains and effective people in court were just some parts of the facilities which this mysterious man of Iran’s contemporary history used for being powerful.
There are many different analysis about Baghaei’s political characteristics, but none of them can be taken as his proved personality. He was the man who participated in the murder of Brigadier Afshar Tous and Major Sakhaei on one hand, and a national man who were always along with Dr. Mohammad Mosaddegh on the other hand. Accordingly, we should decipher his mystery without any conclusions and use of different positive and negative opinions about him.
After the overthrow of Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (The sixth king of Qajar Dynasty from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909), a new era arose in Iran politic. By appearing the constitutional period, two parties called “Etedali” and “Democrat Party of Iran” were created and both assumed Kerman (The second big state in Iran) as an important state. Democrats were faster than Etedalis, and they opened their branch in Kerman first. Kerman has been harmed due to the domination of Qajar princes on one hand and Vakil-al-molk’s household on the other hand. So, it was a suitable place for bringing up demagogic slogans. It did not take long that some of the justified and unjustified political figures in Kerman joined democrats like Seyyed Mostafa Khan Kazemi, Mahmoud Dargahi (Dabestani), Aghamahdi Ra’is Baldieh, Haj Hossein Yasaei, Abdollah Khan Pamenari, Ahmad Dehghan (Bahmanyar), Agha Seyyed Javad and his brother Mirza Shahab.
Mirza Shahab Ravari son of Mirza Abdollah Ghazi was one of the known men at that time in Kerman as his father. Mirza Abdollah was a clergy man and his reputation was due to being Ravar’s judge (a city in Kerman). However, he died when Mirza Shahab was only 11 years old. Then, Mirza Shahab went to “Ebrahim Khan School” which was known as a Sheikhiyeh Sect’s school (a religious sect which their center of power was in Kerman). In addition to studying at Ebrahim Khan School, he also studied jurisprudence, methodology, literature, mathematics and astronomy. Unlike his older brother he never became a clergy man. At the beginning, he decided to be a farmer but then, he started watch making. Simultaneous with the announcement of constitutional, a group of 15 Kerman’s constitutionalists decided to establish a new school based on the new paradigm of schools. They called it “Nosrat e Melli School” and Agha Seyyed Javad – the older brother of Mirza Shahab – became the head of the school. After the constitutional, Seyyed Javad became the head of the Kerman court and because of that Kermanians were calling him The Head Agha Seyyed Javad. After Agha Seyyed Javad, Mirza Shahab became the head of the school. Later on, he established Shahab and Sa’adat schools. Mirza Shahab married to one his cousins and the result of this marriage was a son named Mozaffar. Based on what Mozaffar Baghaei (Mirza Shahab’s son) claimed his father and mother had a very ordinary life at the beginning of their marriage.
Mozaffar, the first and the only son of Mirza Shahab was born on July 23, 1912 in Kerman. Mirza Shahab interest in Mozaffar led to bring him to the meetings, and maybe this is the reason which created an interest in the world of politics in Mozaffar. Mirza Shahab, who was a mighty teacher, taught him basics of calculus and alphabets, and when he was 6 years old sent him to “Nosrat e Melli School”. Mozaffar studied up to third grade of elementary school in Nosrat e Melli. When he was 10 years old, his father became a member of Iran’s parliament, and Mozaffar along with his father came to Tehran and its new world of politics. In Tehran, he went to “Sirous School” and then “Dar ul-Funun” (the first modern university and modern institution of higher education in Iran). He took the test for sending students abroad when he was 18 and was accepted. So, along with other people like Easa Sepahbodi, who had a very important role in Mazaffar’s life, and Gholam Hossein Seddighi one of the leaders of “The National Front of Iran” party went to France. Until then, he had experienced 3 different political atmospheres in Kerman, Tehran and France. He finished his studies in Saint Louis School in France. Based on the documents, every three days Mirza Shahab sent Mozaffar a letter (these letters and their answers are available). In these letters his father told him about Iran’s political situation and Mozaffar about his performance at university which exhibited he did not have good grades. In of the letters which Mozaffar had sent from Italy he had mentioned “I have lent my prayers to God to do them when I came back”. Apparently, he was from a family who believed in Sheikhiyeh, and it was not unexpected that he made fun of Shias (Muslims who believe God chose Ali to be Muhammad’s successor and make the majority of Muslims in Iran), but he even did not believe in Sheikhiyeh.
Finally, he went to Paris-Sorbonne University to study philosophy. At this moment his father had reached higher ranks in Iran. He was responsible for following up the trail of Abdolhossein Teymourtash the governor of Kerman and minister of court. In peak of tensions of King Reza’s government, Mozaffar Baghaei came back to Iran. After finishing his military service period simultaneous with occupation of Iran with Allies he started working in Iran’s insurance company as the damage assessment officer. Later on with approval of the Ministry of Justice he opened an office for Persian-French translation. Eventually, he started working as a philosophy associated professor in University of Tehran in 1940. In these years he married to the daughter of one of his father’s old friends called Vakil Aldole Ebrahimi. However, this marriage did not last long because of Mozaffar’s political businesses. Mozaffar said he got divorced because he wanted to put all his concentration on politics.
40th decade was a very important time period for 30 years old Mozaffar because he could enter the world of politics at this time. At the end of 1940, the Tudeh Party of Iran was established by Mirza Shahab Ravi and Soleyman Mirza Eskandari. Soleyman Mirza asked Mozaffar to join the Tudeh’s club but he refused. Mozaffar did not have a good relationship with the Tudeh Party of Iran but with authors like Sadegh Hedayat who apparently had some fixations with the Tudeh Party of Iran. Parviz Mahmoud and Saeed Nafisi were Mozaffar’s literary friends. Sometimes later, he joined the “Ettehad-e-Melli” Party. This party had been established by 32 members of homeland fraction, one of the fraction of Iran’s 13th parliament. It was a right party and people like Hasan Esfandiari, Seyyed Mohammad Sadegh Tabatabaei, Gholamhossein Mosaheb, Fazollah Zahedi, Arbab Rostam Giv and Mozaffar Baghaei were its managers in the first 40s. The slogan of the party was “all for party, party for homeland” which impressed the young Mozaffar the most. Based on historical documents, Mozaffar Baghaei along with Bahmanyar became a member of party’s cultural commission in 11th meeting of committee of founders. Later on, he became the treasurer of the party and after that the responsible man for establishing the women’s organization of the party. For the first time in history of Iran’s parties he established such an organization with the help of Maryam Firouz the wife of Nour Aldin Kianouri and chose her as the head of the organization. However, after a while Baghaei left the “Ettehad-e-Melli” Party and joined the “Labour Party” of Iran. Managers of Labour Party were seeking a closure to the block of this party in Britain.
A new season was started in Mozaffar’s life after joining the Labour Party. He started writing in party’s newspaper called “Pendar” and became interested in journalism. At that time, the young Mozaffar had a hand in writing in addition to graduate studies and had become a reliable man in Iran’s politics. In 1943, he came back to Kerman and was appointed as the head of the Office of Kerman’s Culture. At the first step, he went to his father’s friends like Mohammad Ali Yasaei and made a core in Kerman. During his presidency, he chose one of his friends Ali Naghi Bahmanyar as the head of inspection in the Office of Kerman’s Culture. Bahmanyar was not a reputed man and sometimes wrote the editorial in Bidary Newspaper. There were some criticisms about performance of Mozaffar, because some people believed that he had put the jobs in hands of people related to Sheikhiyeh and ignored Shias. In these years, he had made a close relationship with his cousin Naser Baghaei who later helped Mozaffar in political atmosphere of Kerman. Many issues happened in those years in Kerman like the election of 15th to 17th Iran’s parliament. In 1943, he decided to enter the political arena as a politician and finally by joining the “Democrat Party of Iran” which is resembled as Baghaei’s Trojan’s horse he entered the serious arena of politics.
In August 1945, Mozaffar Baghaei by receiving a letter from Ali Akbar Mousavi, the head of the commission for organization of Democrat Party of Iran, was missioned to open a branch of party in Kerman. In the letter it was mentioned: “Please prepare the facilities for your travel to the place of mission and depart as soon as possible”. At the time of his presence in Kerman he had gathered some of his friends who were the core of Democrats Party in Kerman like Honarmand brothers, Mohammad Ali Yasaei and Naser Baghaei. These people had important roles especially during the days which Baghaei needed the people to be with him. In those days, some news was announced. Commander Hekmat was going to be chosen as the governor of Kerman. This news disappointed the big shots in Kerman, but helped Baghaei. Baghaei had prepared a luxury welcome for Commander Hekmat. He had made a gorgeous arch at the beginning of Tehran Street and the welcome preparation had been continued to Bagh Melli Square (a very long road in Kerman). However, it was revealed then another person, brigadier Ghadar, was chosen for that post which disappointed Baghaei. Baghaei participated in Ghadar’s inauguration but Ghadar ignored him completely. Not after a long time, Ghadar went to a combat with miscreants and Baghaei did not want him to pass through the arch which he had made for Commander Hekmat in the way back, so, he asked one of the employees of Municipal Administration to destroy it. But not long after destroying the arch, it was sounded out that Commander Hekmat was entering Kerman as Kerman’s governor. Baghaei has mentioned somewhere that Ghadar by making use of Esfandiary had passed himself off as the Kerman’s governor.
In this way, Commander Hekmat a close friend of Baghaei became the Kerman’s governor which paved the way for entering the Baghaei to the parliament. In 15th parliament election Baghaei was chosen as a member of parliament by Kerman’s people. At that time, Mohammad Mosaddegh one of the parliament members with other parliament members were objecting to lack of freedom in election and they took sanctuary in the court. It did not take long that Mozaffar Baghaei resigned from the fraction of Democrats in parliament, although he had promised that he would protect Democrats’ interests. After Baghaei’s resignation, Democrats Party divided into many groups which led to the overthrow of Ghavam Alsaltaneh’s ( prime minister of Iran who was supported by Democrats) government after 22 months. The role of Baghaei in this overthrow cannot be dismissed. After some time, the office of Democrat Party of Iran was occupied with some opponents. Nevertheless, Mozaffar Baghaei along with Mohammad Ali Masoudi, Ahmad Razavi, Dr. Abdolhosseni Raji and some others seized the control of Democrats Party and Baghaei was chosen as the Interim Secretary of the Executive Board.
He had a very important duty at this time. He should have emptied the party from Ghavam Alsaltaneh’s dependents by using a secret commission called “secret purification committee”. Therefore, two purification were done in Iran’s political atmosphere, one by Baghaei in the party and the other one by the king by removing Ghvam Alsaltaneh’s government. Ghavam was a serious threat to king’s popularity because he had made himself popular by sending out Russian forces from Azerbaijan (a region in northwest of Iran) and preventing the creation of an independent Republic of Azerbaijan. However, in those days a new actor entered Iran’s political arena, The United States of America which could not disregard its interests in Iran.
There were many fluctuations in political events at late 40s. At the peak of differences in choosing the new prime minister and other issues like 16th parliament election and the fear of interference of sovereignty in the election, Mozaffar Baghaei established “The organization for supervision on freedom of election”. This organization started working during the 16th parliament election in September 1948 in order to make an open atmosphere for people and preventing fraud in election. After some time, Baghaei also separated from Democrat Party of Iran, the third party which he separated from. He and his friends in parliament were seeking to establish a new party. A party with national thoughts which played an important role in Iran’s history later. That party was named “The National Front of Iran” and was created based on nationalism. The party’s founding board consisted of 19 people including Mozaffar Baghaei and Dr. Mohammad Mosadegh. Now, Baghaei had an significant role in Iran’s politics.
In July 1951, Haj Ali Razmara became prime minister of Iran. In his time, a tough conflict happened between the prime minister and parliament (when Dr. Mosaddegh was a member of it) on the oil Supplemental Agreement. The objections against the agreement gained more power when people also joined it. Mosaddegh in one of his speeches in parliament said: “God is my witness that if they kill us, if they rip us we won’t tolerate such a government. We will shed blood and we will die. If you are military I’m military more than you! I will kill, I will kill you here!” In his response Razmara said: “I got surprised of Mr. Mosaddegh. Parliament is a place for discussion and logic not a place for conflict, contention nor obscenity. If it was a place for obscenity, some rabbles should be parliament members”. Every day, The National Front was gaining more power from people and Razmara’s government was becoming weaker. Eventually, Razmara was assassinated on March 7, 1951. During The Nationalization of Iran’s Oil Industry Movement, The National Front had a very significant role. In these days, many other political parties and groups joined The National Front like Iran Party, Pan Iranist Party with the leadership of Pezeshkpour, Social Theists Movement with the leadership of Hossein Razi and Mohammad Khashab, Iran Nation Party with the leadership of Daryoush Forouhar, The Party of Society of Warrior Muslims, The Third Force and later on some of the Khalil Maleki’s advocates which made The National Front of Iran the most important Iran’s nationalist political organization at that time.
“Experiencing a new meaning of democracy in Iran” some of the political activist in 50s said. By signing the document for nationalization of Iran’s oil and more power in The National Front of Iran, Mohammad Mosaddegh became Iran’s prime minister on April 28, 1951. Now at this time, Mosaddegh’s dream about stopping the foreign interference in Iran had become true and he had the support of Mozaffar Baghaei and Ayatollah Kashani on his sides. Mosaddegh’s government put its all effort on removing colonialism. However, after some time the unity between those leaders was broken and Mozaffar Baghaei and Ayatollah Kashani left Mosaddegh alone. Experts has claimed many reasons for this break up but it can be discussed later.
After those conflicts between the members of The National Front of Iran, Baghaei and Khalil Maleki established the Zahmatkeshan Party. Some believe he did that in order to have enough power for gaining the next government after Mosaddegh. Good days were ending and the conflicts were growing larger. In a speech at parliament Baghaei said that Mosaddegh was breaking the laws. In January 1953, conflicts between Mosaddegh and Baghaei became deeper. Baghaei became Mosaddegh’s real enemy and criticized Mosaddegh’s government in his newspaper called “Shahed”.
Probably nobody imagined that the end of that unity between Mosaddegh, Mozaffar Baghaei and Ayatollah Kashani would be like this. Not only they separated but also stood against each other. After February 1953 until August 1953 Baghaei did everything to put Mosaddegh down. The base of Baghaei’s oppositions was at his place of birth, Kerman. He made many speeches against Mosaddegh in Kerman. After those speeches, Mosaddegh chose one his alliances, Major Sakhaei, as the Chief of Police in Kerman. Major Sakhaei was the former Interior Minister. Sakhaei’s mission was considering the movements of Baghaei and his alliances in Kerman. Stephen Kinzer, the American author and journalist, in his book “All the Shah’s Men” has mentioned that Sakhaei went to kerman because there were some rumors that Baghaei and Shapour Gholamreza were going to prepare a coup from Kerman. But Kerman was not the center of country at that time, so, we can reject this hypothesis. Nevertheless, the number of Mosaddegh’s opponents grew larger day after the day and newspapers made sharper criticisms against him. Eventually, the final day arrived (19 August 1953).
At 9 o’clock people gathered at Sepah Square (at the south of Tehran) and started a protest by chanting this slogan: “Long live the King, down with the man from Tudeh Party”. After that, some people with big sticks joined them. The Keyhan’s reporter was reporting: “4 trucks which carried soldiers and each had a machine gun at the front were moving along with protesters behind and in front of them, and confirmed protesters’ slogans. At 10 o’clock with the slogan of “Long live the King, down with Tudeh” they climbed the Iran Party’s walls. They broke the doors and windows and wounded party’s members who were there. Did not take long that they attacked “Bakhtar Emrooz” newspaper office and burned it. They burned “Shahbar” newspaper office too. Unlike usual, Tehran’s radio did not report these and was silent. At 14 o’clock police station and general staff were surrounded with 6 tanks and some trucks carried soldiers. Brigadier Daftari along with some Jeeps from customs armed guard came to the Central Iran’s Police Station and occupied it (Although Brigadier Daftari had been chosen as the police’s head by Mosaddegh, he was assisting the coup and was receiving orders from General Zahedi). They also took the post and telegraph office. At 13:30 some trucks which carried armed soldiers, many equipped armored cars and trollies which all had some photos of king and the former king with the slogan “Long live king!” started moving. The significant point here was that all the protesters were military forces at that time”.
The reporter also mentioned: “The market was disturbed since morning. Tradespeople were at the doors of the shops and did not work just like waiting for a horrible incident. With any sound, they closed their shops for saving their money and stocks”.
“Until noon, around Mosaddegh’s house was calm because guards had closed all the ways around. Around noon, some people arrived there. But after some shootings they retreated. Around 16:30 some tanks came to assist protesters. Tanks were ready to fire on Mosaddegh’s house. After they fired, some upper parts of the house were destroyed. At that time, 27 tanks surrounded Mosaddegh’s house and some soldiers were accompanying them. Tanks entered thE house garden. They plundered his house, and after some minutes the house was empty and destroyed”.
“Hello, Hello! Here is Tehran, people! Glad tidings! Glad tidings! In a few minutes General Zahedi, the prime minister, will read the king’s announcement for you. People of all Iran’s cities stay awake and alert. Mosaddegh, the traitor, has fled. Mosaddegh, the traitor, has machine gunned thousands of people in streets. People attacked Keyhan, Ettela’at and Bakhtar newspapers offices. They sliced Hossein Fatemi”. It was Mir Ashrafi’s voice, a parliament member whose voice broadcasted from the radio right after the radio was conquered by protesters and coup triumphed. He told people of other cities to be alert which was an encrypted message for coup’s advocates to commit a crime in one of the other cities of Iran. After hearing this voice some events occurred in Iran. In Isfahan’s radio, Arham Sadr who was a radio announcer and producer was talking about national voice and defending Mosaddegh even one day after the coup until they took the radio from him. But just 600km lower than Isfahan and 1000km away from Tehran in Mozaffar Baghaei’s birth place something strange happened.
Major Mahmoud Sakhaei, the trustworthy officer of Mosaddegh had gone to Kerman 2 months before the coup. He was born in 1918 in Kashan and his father was Haj Seyyed Ahmad. One of his brothers, Seyyed Ebrahim, was a military man and the other one, Manouchehr was a musician. Sakhaei studied in a military high school and then entered the military university. He was Iran’s shooting champion. Based on the letters from senior officers in the university he was a dutiful, nationalist and loyal soldier and these were the reasons that he liked Mosaddegh. When he was in military, that event on July 20, 1952 happened. In a letter that he sent to his friend in Georgia, USA on November 16, 1951 he said: “I should confess that Mosaddegh’s reckless actions are praise worthy and we do not need to know who invented the matches; as long as it gives light to us we value it… all the people who were disappointed and deprived of their freedom gathered around this 70 years old man and helped him in progress of his plans, and this is the best opportunity which is given to them in the world of politics”. After July 20 events, Sakhaei wrote a book named “Mosaddegh and National Resurrection” which was known as “Iran National Army Doctrine” by that time nationalists. This book regardless of the Sakahei’s military personality is focusing on absence of political diversion in Iran especially in the army, and also a theory about liberty, army’s system reformation and statecraft based on the Mosaddegh’s Iran National Movement. After writing this book, Sakhaei met Mosaddegh and joined the Iran National Movement. On February 1953, some people attacked Mosaddegh’s house and wanted to kill him. This attack which called “Banditism” and was planned by some military officers and a villain called Shaban Jafari was unsuccessful. In those days, Mahmoud Sakhaei was chosen as the head of parliament guards. He was trustworthy to Ahmad Razavi who was parliament vice president and was Kerman representative in the parliament. This helped Sakhaei to make significant changes in parliament guard. Abolfazl Ghasemi, the head of Iran Party, about sending Sakhaei to Kerman has said: “After knowing about Baghaei’s actions in Kerman and presence of Brigadier Amanpour who was a monarchist and the head of Kerman’s military, Ahmad Razavi based on his trust on Sakhaei suggested him as the Kerman’s Police Chief to Mosaddegh”. Mosaddegh accepted this suggestion with a little hesitation and told Razavi: “The Major Ashrafi is not a reliable man. I want to choose Major Sakhaei as the military governor of Tehran instead of him after the end of referendum and coming back to Tehran”. However, Sakhaei who did not know about his no return travel, before going to Kerman formed the Officers Organization and gathered all the officers who believed in Mosaddegh’s movement. He wanted to create a “National Guard” for saving Mosaddegh’s achievements.
Major Sakhaei was preparing himself for going to Kerman. Before leaving he gave a copy of his book and a letter to Dr. Mosaddegh. In a part of this letter he said: “The leader of Iran’s nation, what you did until now and what you will do in the future is for Iran’s nation and this country. In the past, many people by funding and statesmen by incumbency in sensitive positions in government has shown their respect to the father of nation, but because I am just a simple major in military and not wealthy, I could not join the Great Movement of Iran directly and positively, and because of that I wrote a book which is dedicated to you… Now by dedicating this book, my most precious and only property, the only wish of your major is that you, as the father, accept Iran’s nation and know that there is a small but resolute man who will do everything in progress of our movement and destroy every obstacle”.
In the evening of coup day, Major Sakhaei was slaughtered. Based on what Mahdi Rajabali has said: on the coup morning an argument occurred between Sakhaei and Brigadier Amanpour, the head of Kerman’s military. In the afternoon and after broadcasting the Mir Ashrafi’s voice in the radio some plaincloth officers went to the police office to attack Sakhaei. At that time in Kerman, all the General Staff Office, Education Office, Government Office, Officers’ Club, Register Office, Department of Telecommunications, Post Office and Police Office were at the same street. Sakhaei was at his home while his driver came to him and asked him to take the car and escape, but Major Sakhaei believed that he could control the situation and told his driver that he had the mission from Dr. Mosaddegh to control the political situation in Kerman.
Kerman Police Office building was connected to the Office of Governor on one side and to the Education Office on other side. The building of General Staff was also next to the Education Office. Major Sakhaei through the roof of the Police Office building went to the Education Office and from there he took refuge in the General Staff building and Amanpour’s office. While Amanpour did not like Sakhaei and had an argument with him just in that morning sheltered him. Ones who were looking for Sakhaei found out he has moved to the General Staff Office. They entered the General Staff Office and went to the Amanpour’s office. When they arrived, while Amanpour was telling them that Sakhaei was not there by pointing showed them where he was hiding.
What happened in the afternoon of coup was slaughtering the special agent of Mosaddegh in Kerman. In the Wednesday afternoon of August 15, 1953, while the slogans of “Long live Mosaddegh, Down with King” had changed to the “Long live King, Down with Mosaddegh”, some of Mosaddegh’s opponents in Kerman who were Mozaffar Baghaei’s advocates went to the Police Office to attack Major Sakhaei, because he was one of the loyal advocates of Mosaddegh. They were accusing Sakhaei for tearing the Quran, what he had never done. When they found him, did not let him to talk while he was saying “I’m your prisoner and I will talk in the court”. They stabbed him in all parts of his body and while he was still half alive threw him out of the window and other opponents in the street beat him with sticks and stones. After all these, they tied his foot to a car, disrobed him and hauled him on the ground. Then, while they had thrust a stick into his back, hanged him in the central square of the city. After that, some people started rending some parts of his body. According to eyewitnesses, someone cut the body’s genital organ and put it in its mouth and started laughing; also, some one cut his testicles and put them as military ranks on his shoulders. “Tearing the Quran was just a pretext for Baghaei to take his revenge from Mosaddegh by slaughtering Sakhaei” Adib Borouman, an Iranian politician and lawyer says. On those days, Kerman’s atmosphere was very religious and tearing the Muslims’ Holy Book was the best pretext. It has been also mentioned that Brigadier Amanpour drove on the Sakhaei’s corpse with a car. Mahdi Rajabali, a scientist from Kerman, said that one day he asked Brigadier Amanpour’s driver if he drove on the Skahaei’s corpse or not and he answered: “I was in the car with Brigadier Amanpour and drove toward the corpse but before reaching the corpse Amanpour ordered me to change my way through the people. I told him maybe we hit someone and he said they were alive people and could run but the death corpse could not. I changed my way and people ran away and we bypassed the corpse”. Some people believe that Baghaei is the prime suspect of this tragedy, but some believe he did not have any roles in it. Mohammad Mohammadi, a journalist from Kerman who is recently died said: “Baghaei was not willing to what happened to Sakhaei”. Nevertheless, Baghaei had an active role in the coup and the press after the coup called him one of the leaders of “National Uprising” for overthrowing Mosaddegh’s government.
It is around 20 days after heinous murder of Major Sakhaei in Kerman. Baghaei came to Kerman to talk for members of Youth Organization of Zahmatkeshan Party. When he went behind the tribune people welcomed him with slogan “Down with Mosaddegh, Long Live King”. At the beginning of his speech he said: “Thank you for expressing your feelings. Now I feel like a big load is taken off my back”.
His speech notes has been published in the 11th issue of Soufar Magazine on September 16, 1953. He continued: “I came here to kiss those hands which did that action (murder of Sakhaei). Your telegraphs and scrolls and their words, phrases and signatures each was like a dirk in heart of the traitors. Those who disobeyed the rules and tried to destroy the country. People of Kerman! The lesson which you taught to that traitor (Sakhaei) will stay forever in the contemporary history of Kerman and Iran. You bring that special agent the punishment which was the result of his actions and took him down a peg. I came to Kerman to kiss those hands which did that bravery. On behalf of the Majesty, I thank the people of Kerman for expressing their feelings and loving the king”.
Murder of Sakhaei is a dark point in Kerman’s history and the role of Baghaei in that tragedy like the murder of Brigadier Afshar Tous is notable. About the murder of Brigadier Afshar Tous the Chief of Police in Tehran, it has been said that the indirect plan and order was given by Baghaei. In that story, it has been also mentioned that they tried to dethrone him from parliament membership to remove his parliamentary immunity and condemn him but it was unsuccessful. After the coup, Baghaei who was dreaming about being a prime minister became closer to the king. However, after the failure in becoming the prime minister, he said some words against Zahedi, the new prime minister which led to his exile to Zahedan. In 1960, he met the king again and king let him to be a candidate in parliament election, but he could not enter the parliament because of invalidation of election due to some cheatings. After that he was arrested because of publishing a declaration against the government but acquitted in the court. In 1963, he started some brief political activities and gently criticism of the government.
In 70s he tried to regain his political reputation and reactivate the Zahmatkeshan Party; however, this time the party was more like a friendly circle than a serious political organization. He also by declaration his loyalty to monarchy and the constitution, blamed the establishing of “Rastakhiz Party of People of Iran” (which was founded with the direct order of the king).
In Iran with will of the people a revolution happened. Now, the country was going to be managed by people and The United States’ interests were in danger. There was no king and no crown any more. On 4 November 1979 “The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam’s Line” (an Iranian student group who were supporters of the Islamic Revolution) who were upset about the overthrow of Mosaddegh’s national government and had seen the role of US in it, attacked the US Embassy and occupied it. The US tried to free the embassy hostages through a military attack from Tabas (A city in west of Iran) but it was unsuccessful. Moreover, in first months after the revolution a network for a coup called “Nojeh” discovered on July 1980. The military commander of the coup was General Mahdioun who was one of the relatives of Mohammad Mohammadi a journalist from Kerman, the representative of Keyhan Newspaper in Kerman, member of the Zahmatkeshan Party and one of the friends of Mozaffar Baghaei. In the days that the cope was planned in July 1979, some advocates of Baghaei gathered together in a party which was a usual gathering created by Baghaei since 1970. As a result of discovering about the coup some of the guests including Baghaei were arrested. Baghaei sent a letter to Imam Khomeini (The leader of Islamic Revolution of Iran) and explained about the gathering and asked for his release, but that letter was never answered.
In July 1979, Baghaei and some of his friends were arrested in charges of conspiracy against the Islamic revolution. On 23 December 1979, Baghaei recorded a cassette tape which is known as his political testament. In this tape he announced about his retirement of politics; however, he continued his political activities after that. The continuity of his hidden political activities especially his connections to out of the Iran resulted in his rearrest. After a short time on 17 November 1987 he died.
Mozaffar Baghaei is a strange figure in Iran’s history. He moved several times between different parties and did whatever it took to achieve his desires. Mozaffar Baghaei, the man who was the Kerman representative in parliament and established the “Ghaem Forrest” in Kerman, was also suspected for involving in the murder of Major Sakhaei and Afshar Tous; although, later he confessed that he was involved in murder of Afshar Tous and Nojeh Coup. A man who entered the Iran’s world of politics and did lots of strange things. After more than 29 years from his death, his figures is still unknown for many historians and no one has understood his role in Iran’s politics completely. Mozaffar Baghaei wanted to be an everlasting man in history of Iran, but the only thing which is lasted from him is just a mystery.
All the references about this article are available.
Published on September 2016 in Asaraneh Monthly.
You can download the original Persian article from Asraneh Telegeram channel.